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Great Britain

Great Britain, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles, of Western Europe. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.

The country is often referred to as Great Britain, Britain or the UK. But to be precise, Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland on the island of Great Britain, while the United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech "Great Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the United Kingdom is London, in England. The capitals of Scotland, Ireland and Wales are Edinburgh, Belfast and Cardiff respectively.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Shakespeare called Britain a "precious stone set in the silver sea" because of its natural beauty. It has a varied countryside where you can find mountains, plains, valleys and sandy beaches. There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England almost along its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales, and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain, is only 1,343 meters high. There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.

Great Britain is not very much rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It has achieved this position despite the lack of most raw materials needed for industry. Ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical and textile industries are the older fields of industry. The newer ones are aircraft, automobile, chemical industries, electronic engineering. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. The main industrial centers are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Cardiff.

The population of the United Kingdom is over 55 million people. The English are more than 80 % of the country's population. English is the official language of Great Britain.

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. The Queen is formally the head of the state, but in fact the country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. There's no written constitution in Great Britain only a centuries-old accumulation of statutes, judicial decisions, usage, and tradition.

Тест на тему: Great Britain

1. Where is Great Britain situated?

  1. in the Western part of Europe

  2. in the Eastern part of Europe

  3. in the Northern Eastern part of Europe

  4. in the Southern part of Europe

2. Great Britain is

  1. an island

  2. a peninsula

  3. a continent

  4. a group of islands

3. There are over small islands in the system of the British Isles.

  1. 10 000

  2. 5 000

  3. 3 000

  4. 2 000

4. What is the official name of this country?

a) England

b) Great Britain

c) Britain

d) The United Kingdom oа Great Britain and Northern Ireland

5. What countries does the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consist of?

  1. Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales

  2. Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales

  3. England, Wales, Scotland

  4. Britain, England, Wales, Scotland

6. What parts does Great Britain comprise of?

a) Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales

b) Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales

c) England, Wales, Scotland

d) Britain, England, Wales, Scotland

7. Which part does not belong to the UK?

  1. Northern Ireland

  2. Scotland

  3. The Republic of Ireland

  4. Wales

8. What country is the largest in the UK?

  1. Northern Ireland

  2. England

  3. Scotland

  4. Wales

9. What country is the smallest in the UK?

      1. Northern Ireland

      2. England

      3. Scotland

      4. Wales

10. What part of Great Britain borders on the Independent Irish Republic on land?

  1. England

  2. Scotland

  3. Wales

  4. Northern Ireland

11. What is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?

  1. London

  2. Edinburgh

  3. Newcastle

  4. Cardiff

12. What is the capital of England?

  1. London

  2. Edinburgh

  3. Belfast

  4. Cardiff

13. What is the capital of Scotland?

  1. Glasgow

  2. Edinburgh

  3. Belfast

  4. Cardiff

14. What is the capital of Wales?

  1. Birmingham

  2. Edinburgh

  3. Belfast

  4. Cardiff

15. What is the capital of Northern Ireland?

  1. Canterbury

  2. Edinburgh

  3. Belfast

  4. Cardiff

16. What's the capital of the Republic of Ireland?

  1. Cork

  2. Dublin

  3. Belfast

  4. Cardiff

17.  What channel separates the British Isles from the continent?

a) the Bristol Channel

b) the English Channel

c) the St. George’s Channel

d) the Suez Canal

18. How do the English call the English Channel?

  1. St. George’s Channel

  2. La Manche

  3. Strait of Dover

  4. Pais de Calais

19. What strait do we usually call the narrowest part of the English Channel?

  1. the Strait of Gibraltar

  2. the Strait of Dover

  3. the Strait of Florida

  4. Gulf Stream

20. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by …..

  1. by the Irish Sea

  2. by the North Sea and the English Channel

  3. by the Chaviot Hills

  4. by the Irish Sea and the English Channel

21. What is the western coast of the British Isles washed by?

  1. By the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk

  2. By the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea

  3. By the Arctic Ocean and the White Sea

  4. By the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea

22. What is the eastern coast of the British Isles washed by?

  1. By the North Sea

  2. By the Celtic Sea

  3. By the Irish Sea

  4. By the English Channel

23. Who was Shakespeare?


a) a prime minister
b) a king
c) a
poet

d) a painter

24. The mountains which separate England from Scotland are …..

  1. the Cambrians

  2. the Grampians

  3. the Cheviot Hills

  4. the Pennines

25. What mountains are situated in the North of England and stretch down almost to its middle?

  1. the Pennines

  2. the Highlands

  3. the Cambrians

  4. the Cheviot Hills

26. Where are the Cambrian mountains situated?

      1. In England

      2. In Scotland

      3. In Wales

      4. In the Northern Ireland

27. The tallest mountains in Great Britain are …..

  1. the Highlands

  2. the Cambrians

  3. the Cheviots

  4. the Pennines

28. Where is Ben Nevis situated?

  1. in Scotland

  2. in Wales

  3. in England

  4. in the Northern Ireland

29. The longest river of Great Britain is …… .

  1. the Thames

  2. the Tyne

  3. the Severn

  4. the Clyde

30. The deepest river of Great Britain is …….

  1. the Thames

  2. the Avon

  3. the Severn

  4. the Mersey

31. The climate of Great Britain is......

a) dry

b) frosty

c) mild

d) tropical

32. Great Britain is rich in such natural resources as …..

    1. iron ore, manganese, titanium and uranium ores

    2. rock salt, graphite, mercury, gypsum and zinc

    3. coal, iron ore, copper, graphite and manganese

    4. coal, iron ore, gas and oil

33. What are the oldest industries in the UK?

  1. machine-building, metallurgical, coal-mining

  2. automobile, aircraft, ship-building, metallurgy

  3. ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical, textile

  4. food, textile, chemical, electronic engineering

34. What are the newest industries in the UK?

  1. cellulose paper, building, chemical, food, textile

  2. aircraft, automobile, chemical, electronic engineering

  3. coal-mining, machine-building, metallurgical

  4. ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical, textile

35. What does the UK produce and export?

  1. semi-finished goods and cheap household appliances

  2. machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment

  3. tractors, combines, equipment for metallurgy, mining and textile industries

  4. raw materials and agricultural products

36. What are the main industrial centers in Great Britain?

  1. London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Cardiff

  2. London, Oxford, Cambridge, Canterbury, Stratford-on Avon, Plymouth

  3. Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, Newcastle, Glasgow, Manchester

  4. Donetsk, Kryvyi Rig, Zaporizhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Kharkov, Nikopol

37. What kind of state is the United Kingdom?

  1. the republic

  2. absolutely monarchy

  3. constitutional monarchy

  4. parliamentary democracy

38. Who is the head of the state in Great Britain?

a) the Prime Minister

b) the President

c) the Queen

d) the Speaker

39. Who does the real power in Britain belong to?

  1. the Queen

  2. the British Parliament

  3. the Prime Minister

  4. the Speaker

40. Who heads the government of Great Britain?

  1. The Prime Minister

  2. The Queen

  3. The Lord Chancellor

  4. the Speaker

41. How many houses does the British Parliament consist of?

a) Three

b) Five

c) Two

d) Four

42. What are the three main parties in Great Britain?

  1. Labour, Conservatives and Liberal

  2. Democratic, Republican and Liberal

  3. Labour, Socialist and Democratic

  4. Liberal, Nationalists and Communist

43. Does the UK have a written constitution?

    1. Yes, it does.

    2. No, it doesn’t.

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