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Great Britain, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles, of Western Europe. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers.
The country is often referred to as Great Britain, Britain or the UK. But to be precise, Great Britain comprises England, Wales and Scotland on the island of Great Britain, while the United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech "Great Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the United Kingdom is London, in England. The capitals of Scotland, Ireland and Wales are Edinburgh, Belfast and Cardiff respectively.
The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Shakespeare called Britain a "precious stone set in the silver sea" because of its natural beauty. It has a varied countryside where you can find mountains, plains, valleys and sandy beaches. There are no high mountains in Great Britain. In the north the Cheviots (the Cheviot Hills) separate England from Scotland, the Pennines stretch down North England almost along its middle, the Cambrian mountains occupy the greater part of Wales, and the Highlands of Scotland are the tallest of the British mountains. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain, is only 1,343 meters high. There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.
Great Britain is not very much rich in mineral resources, it has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas that were discovered in the North Sea. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It has achieved this position despite the lack of most raw materials needed for industry. Ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical and textile industries are the older fields of industry. The newer ones are aircraft, automobile, chemical industries, electronic engineering. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. The main industrial centers are London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Cardiff.
The population of the United Kingdom is over 55 million people. The English are more than 80 % of the country's population. English is the official language of Great Britain.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. The Queen is formally the head of the state, but in fact the country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. There's no written constitution in Great Britain only a centuries-old accumulation of statutes, judicial decisions, usage, and tradition.
Тест на тему: Great Britain
1. Where is Great Britain situated?
in the Western part of Europe
in the Eastern part of Europe
in the Northern Eastern part of Europe
in the Southern part of Europe
2. Great Britain is …
a group of islands
3. There are over small islands in the system of the British Isles.
4. What is the official name of this country?
b) Great Britain
d) The United Kingdom oа Great Britain and Northern Ireland
5. What countries does the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consist of?
Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales
Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales
England, Wales, Scotland
Britain, England, Wales, Scotland
6. What parts does Great Britain comprise of?
a) Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales
b) Northern Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales
c) England, Wales, Scotland
d) Britain, England, Wales, Scotland
7. Which part does not belong to the UK?
The Republic of Ireland
8. What country is the largest in the UK?
9. What country is the smallest in the UK?
10. What part of Great Britain borders on the Independent Irish Republic on land?
11. What is the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland?
12. What is the capital of England?
13. What is the capital of Scotland?
14. What is the capital of Wales?
15. What is the capital of Northern Ireland?
16. What's the capital of the Republic of Ireland?
17. What channel separates the British Isles from the continent?
a) the Bristol Channel
b) the English Channel
c) the St. George’s Channel
d) the Suez Canal
18. How do the English call the English Channel?
St. George’s Channel
Strait of Dover
Pais de Calais
19. What strait do we usually call the narrowest part of the English Channel?
the Strait of Gibraltar
the Strait of Dover
the Strait of Florida
20. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by …..
by the Irish Sea
by the North Sea and the English Channel
by the Chaviot Hills
by the Irish Sea and the English Channel
21. What is the western coast of the British Isles washed by?
By the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Okhotsk
By the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea
By the Arctic Ocean and the White Sea
By the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea
22. What is the eastern coast of the British Isles washed by?
By the North Sea
By the Celtic Sea
By the Irish Sea
By the English Channel
23. Who was Shakespeare?
a) a prime minister
b) a king
c) a poet
d) a painter
24. The mountains which separate England from Scotland are …..
the Cheviot Hills
25. What mountains are situated in the North of England and stretch down almost to its middle?
the Cheviot Hills
26. Where are the Cambrian mountains situated?
In the Northern Ireland
27. The tallest mountains in Great Britain are …..
28. Where is Ben Nevis situated?
in the Northern Ireland
29. The longest river of Great Britain is …… .
30. The deepest river of Great Britain is …….
31. The climate of Great Britain is......
32. Great Britain is rich in such natural resources as …..
iron ore, manganese, titanium and uranium ores
rock salt, graphite, mercury, gypsum and zinc
coal, iron ore, copper, graphite and manganese
coal, iron ore, gas and oil
33. What are the oldest industries in the UK?
machine-building, metallurgical, coal-mining
automobile, aircraft, ship-building, metallurgy
ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical, textile
food, textile, chemical, electronic engineering
34. What are the newest industries in the UK?
cellulose paper, building, chemical, food, textile
aircraft, automobile, chemical, electronic engineering
coal-mining, machine-building, metallurgical
ship-building, coal-mining, metallurgical, textile
35. What does the UK produce and export?
semi-finished goods and cheap household appliances
machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment
tractors, combines, equipment for metallurgy, mining and textile industries
raw materials and agricultural products
36. What are the main industrial centers in Great Britain?
London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Cardiff
London, Oxford, Cambridge, Canterbury, Stratford-on Avon, Plymouth
Birmingham, Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, Newcastle, Glasgow, Manchester
Donetsk, Kryvyi Rig, Zaporizhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Kharkov, Nikopol
37. What kind of state is the United Kingdom?
38. Who is the head of the state in Great Britain?
a) the Prime Minister
b) the President
c) the Queen
d) the Speaker
39. Who does the real power in Britain belong to?
the British Parliament
the Prime Minister
40. Who heads the government of Great Britain?
The Prime Minister
The Lord Chancellor
41. How many houses does the British Parliament consist of?
42. What are the three main parties in Great Britain?
Labour, Conservatives and Liberal
Democratic, Republican and Liberal
Labour, Socialist and Democratic
Liberal, Nationalists and Communist
Yes, it does.
No, it doesn’t.
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