План 1. Mass media. 2. Press. 3. Television. 4. Internet media. 5. The development of the media. 6. The main functions of the media. 7. Characteristics of the media. 8. Political manipulation. 9. Methods of political manipulation. 10. Censorship. 11. Freedom and censorship in modern media. 12. Conclusion. 13. List of used literature.
Mass media are periodicals and other means of disseminating information aimed at reaching an unlimited number of people in order to promptly inform them about events and phenomena in the world, in a particular country, in a certain region, as well as in fulfilling certain social functions.
Press - printed mass media (periodicals), which come under the permanent name, with the frequency of one or more issues (issues) during the year. Under the press are understood newspapers, magazines, almanacs, collections, newsletters, less books, postcards with a certain circulation.
Television is a general term that covers all aspects of technology and practice associated with the transmission of images with long-range sound. Television is a powerful means of communication, the media. Television knows no political or geographical boundaries, it overcomes space and Palestine time. It makes a person an accomplice to events, even realized without him. Television creates a background to our lives, changes our habits, engages in discussion of various problems, and shapes public consciousness.
Internet media (internet publication, internet newspaper) is a regularly updated information site, which puts its mission to serve as a media tool and has some popularity and authority (with its constant audience).
The information originally spread orally, and with the development of writing - in writing: on papyrus, paper, stones. Newspapers that resembled modern ones arose after the invention by Johann Gutenberg in 1450, a printing press. The next breakthrough in media development took place in the nineteenth century. with the invention of telegraph, telephone and radio. At the beginning of the twentieth century. began to broadcast radio broadcasts regularly, and from the 30s of the last century in our lives confidently entered television. The Soviet Union broadcasted the first television program in 1939, and regular broadcasting began in 1946 in Moscow. The real revolution took place with the invention of the Internet, computer networks, e-mail.
The main functions of the media in a democratic society include the following: • Information - obtaining and disseminating information about the most important events in society, which influences the formation of public opinion on various issues; educational - media informs citizens about certain knowledge, which in the future allows them to navigate in conflicting streams of information; political socialization - through mass media citizens adopt certain standards of political behavior, values and norms that allow them to adapt to reality; control over the activities of the subjects of power, their critics - the media inform about both positive and negative facts of the government, individual officials; Mobilization - Mass media motivate people for certain actions or inactivity.
Policies as the sphere of social activity most in need of the mass media to establish and maintain permanent links between its subjects. Politics is impossible without mediated forms of communication and special means of communication between different carriers of power, as well as between the state and citizens. In today's society, the media are increasingly acting not only as a necessary conduit for policy makers, but also for their creator.
Characteristics of the media: publicity (unlimited, non-personalized circle of consumers); availability of special technical means; indirect, divided in space and time interaction of communication partners; non-permanent nature of the audience; the overwhelming unidirectional effect of the communicator to the recipient.
The most massive and strong political influence on society is the audiovisual media, first of all television. The opinion about the television championship by the degree of coverage of the population of Ukraine is confirmed by the results of the survey of the Ukrainian Marketing Group.
ЗМІ provide representatives of various social groups with the opportunity to publicly express their thoughts, find and unite their associates, clearly formulate and represent their interests in public opinion. Without the press, television, broadcasting, no citizen can properly orient in political processes, determine his political orientation, make responsible decisions.
Historical experience shows that the media can serve different, not only democratic, political goals: how to develop people's aspirations for freedom, social justice, helping them in competent participation in politics, and spiritually securing, disinforming, intimidating the population, sowing distrust and fear. .
Політичне маніпулювання Under the term "political manipulation" is understood the hidden management of political consciousness and behavior of people in order to force them into action (inaction) contrary to their own interests. Manipulation is imperceptible for those who manage; it does not entail direct casualties and blood, does not require huge material costs. Political manipulation is mainly based on the systematic introduction of socio-political myths into the mass consciousness.
Способи політичного маніпулювання: direct clutter of facts; silence of unprofitable information dissemination of lies and slander; half truth (coverage of concrete, minor parts, while simultaneously silencing more important facts or general misrepresentation of events); hanging labels for commenting politicians or political ideas, etc.
Censorship is the control of the official authority in the content, production and distribution of printed matter, the content and execution (showing) of stage productions, radio and television broadcasts, and sometimes also private correspondence (pre-printing) in order to prevent or restrict the dissemination of ideas and information that this authorities recognize unwanted or harmful.
Свобода і цензура в сучасних ЗМІ We often talk about freedom of speech and censorship in Ukraine. But do they really exist in our state and in modern media. The first, apparently, is, but the latter acts, but in a way that restricts the rights of Ukrainian citizens. Mass media in Ukraine are under absolute control of the authorities. From the outside, the situation may not look so bad and there is no such tight control that was in the days of Kuchma. But from time to time, there are facts that show the opposite. There is also censorship in Ukraine. The range of her hacking is quite wide - this is direct censorship in the form of "orders" or "outfits" (which materials should or should not be let out), censorship and government orders, which are implemented by removing plots, programs and publications devoted to problems deliberately unsolved for the general public, censorship in the form of an accreditation institute, which has the legal authority to deny the right to exist, any issued. And the current political, social and economic situation in Ukraine leads to reflections and questions about whether there will ever be free democratic media, freedom of speech and the correct use of censorship in Ukraine.
Висновок. Recognizing the upgrade, the media system, in the context of national revival, acts as an effective instrument of social influence and the achievement of civil consent, which is an important factor in the functioning of a modern democratic society.
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