МАТЕРІАЛИ ДЛЯ НАУКОВОГО ЗБІРНИКА
The authors analyse the dynamics of public attitudes towards Ukraine’s accession to the EU and NATO, which has been shaped by various geopolitical and geo-economic challenges of the contemporary globalisation.
Keywords: the EU, NATO, integration, globalisation.
The article gives a description of a continuing series of the author’s observations focusing on the phenomenon of volunteer movement in Ukraine (VMU). The purpose of this research paper is twofold: to develop an adequate methodological framework for studying this remarkable phenomenon and record the presence of VMU in Ukrainian society by using empirical evidence collected in August 2019. In order to grasp the concept of the volunteer movement in Ukraine, the author recommends that it should be studied by combining two approaches. One of them is known as institutional (neo-institutional) while the other regards VMU as a self-organising system. From this standpoint, the volunteer movement in Ukraine can be characterised as a social phenomenon that arose due to the failure of formal social institutions to cope with the challenges generated by crisis of 2014–15. In other words, VMU was a spontaneous and self-organised societal response to that situation. Making reference to the recent survey data (August 2019), the author concludes that a considerable change in Ukraine’s political landscape has not really affected citizens’ attitudes towards volunteers. They enjoy a high level of public trust and strong support from ordinary Ukrainians like five years ago, when the volunteer movement was coming into being. Also, the role of VMU in society is greatly appreciated.
Keywords: volunteer movement in Ukraine (VMU), social institutions, institutional instability, social self-organisation.
A dramatic shift in public opinion in terms of state institutions, which has happened due to the 2019 presidential and parliamentary elections, poses anew the question of the relationship between the state and civil society. What impact has this shift had on Ukraine’s civil society? Has it fed into the latter’s role as a driver of social change? Is the civil society willing to cooperate with the state? These issues are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: civil society, civil society organisations (CSOs), trust in state institutions and CSOs, readiness to protest, public moods.
The paper presents an analysis of Ukrainians’ social assistance needs, with specifying kinds of social welfare payments and services that they have (or have not) received. The data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey for the years 2018 and 2019 have served as an empirical basis for the analysis. About 1,800 respondents from different socio-demographic backgrounds and income groups participated in the survey. The usefulness of the analysis is that the results can be taken into account while drafting social policy framework.
Keywords: social policy, social protection, income distribution, social inequality.
In recent years, Ukraine has been witnessing internetisation on a massive scale. To put it more precisely, a series of stages has to be gone through, and each of them is expected to shape the dynamics of online civic activities conducted by Ukrainian citizens as well as the ways these activities are being performed. Internetisation of society is seen as a top task by Ukrainian government, which has announced a course towards the fundamental transformation of state–society relations. This strategy primarily involves expanding the efficient online interaction between the state and other key social actors (citizens, businesses, governmental agencies, public bodies, civil society organisations, etc.). In this context, trust in the Internet, as a vital medium for such close and multidimensional interaction, becomes crucial. The last year data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey shed light on the citizens’ perception of the Internet in terms of trustworthiness. According to the figures, those who trust the Internet (completely or partially) outnumber those who do not. A positive trust–distrust balance sets the Internet apart from a number of Ukrainian social institutions, which are more distrusted than trusted, and also serves as a prerequisite for successful online dialogue between the state and the citizen.
Keywords: internetisation of society, stages of digital transformation, the degree of trust in the Internet, trust–distrust balance, trustworthiness, the benefit of the doubt.
The paper examines the dynamics of public trust in the four incumbent presidents of Ukraine, along with evaluation of their performance. The author presents some indicators directly relating both to public evaluation of presidential performance and to the shaping of Ukrainians’ social attitudes towards state-level political institutions.
Keywords: president, presidential election, trust, performance evaluation, authorities.
The article gives a description of some key characteristics of a social (welfare) state and discusses if they are present in Ukrainian society. Drawing on the data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey, the author analyses how well respondents’ expectations of the government’s social policy and reforms are being met. The analysis serves as a basis for reflection on whether Ukraine can be currently considered a full-fledged welfare state.
Keywords: social (welfare) state, reforms, civil society, responsibility, passivity.
A person is considered socially adapted if he/she has enough money to purchase necessary goods and/or services such as food, clothing, health care, etc., as well as possesses the qualities that help them adjust to living in changeable social and economic circumstances (which is also conducive to psychological well-being). The same holds true for social groups and the population of a particular country like Ukraine. Relying on the indicators described above, the author analyses the dynamics of Ukrainians’ social adaptation over the 1995–2019 period. The data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey serve as a basis for the analysis. The figures show a considerable decrease in the share of people reporting that they are struggling to meet their basic needs (such as food, clothing and furniture) or cannot afford health care. In 1995, for instance, over half of those surveyed (52.8%) said they had trouble even paying for groceries, while in 2019 less than one fourth (24.0%) of them experienced such hardship. As for other indicators of social adaptation, now 40.0% of respondents regard themselves as being able to live in new socio-economic realities — up 27.8 percentage points since 1996. The share of people successfully adapting to new socio-economic circumstances has risen, albeit not uniformly, in all socio-demographic groups. Differences are explained by a respondent’s age, gender, educational attainment, occupation and place of residence (city, town or village).
Keywords: social adaptation, life areas, basic goods, adaptation indicators.
The paper centres around the challenges, actual effects and potential outcomes of market-driven transformation taking place in today’s Ukrainian society. Transformational change is analysed in the context of interaction between the state and civil society.
Keywords: society, state, social actors, dialogue, market, transformational change.
The paper shows how respondents who take an uncertain stance on the issues under study (those opting for “the don’t know / no opinion / difficult to say”, etc.) can be put into the pre-assigned categories (e. g. together with those answering “yes” or “no”, “for” or “against”). What serves this purpose is a decision tree model that draws upon the findings of a sociological test. To illustrate how it works, the author uses the data (additive values) from two sociological tests such as “EU-geopol” and “RF-geopol” (as independent variables) and a question about a respondent’s likely participation in the referendum on Ukraine’s accession to the European Union (as a dependent variable). The data from a control group have demonstrated the following indicators of the model quality: sensitivity (recall) — 0,974, specificity — 0,766; efficiency — 0,937; positive predictive value — 0,946; negative predictive value — 0,877.
Keywords: geopolitical orientations, machine learning, decision trees.
The paper mainly focuses on the two following issues: the dynamics of public attitudes towards a multiparty system in Ukraine and citizens’ opinions on the ability of registered political parties to effectively run the country. The answers of respondents from different regions are compared. The data of the “Ukrainian Society” for the past year indicate a noticeable growth in the number of people who are certain that across Ukraine’s current political spectrum there are parties which can be entrusted with the power to rule the country.
Keywords: political system, political parties, respondents from different regions of Ukraine.
The paper analyses the attitudes of Ukraine’s population towards European values. Drawing upon the findings of a nationwide survey conducted by the Gorshenin Institute in partnership with the Kyiv Office of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung in 2017, the author compares respondents’ endorsement of the values laid down in Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union with that of the values linked to the Soviet past. The figures suggest that although the Soviet-era value system has been noticeably transformed, this transformation is far from being complete and coherent. In respondents’ minds, the newly espoused value orientations that are basic to European societies quite often coexist with the old expectations, which are paternalistic in nature. However, the overall trend of transformation shows that the new values and principles are gradually getting established. This process is running in parallel with changes in other key areas of Ukrainian society, which have been unfolding due to the implementation of the EU — Ukraine Association Agreement.
Keywords: European values, Soviet values, mass consciousness, inconsistency of value orientations.
The paper addresses the following issues: a) social protection, which rather often becomes a slogan for populist parties and movements in democratic countries; b) peasantry as a poor and vulnerable class; c) the necessity of distinguishing between ordinary peasants and farmers. The latter, as the authors put it, represent a capitalist class in a capitalist society, whereas peasantry is a class of a transitional society. Each of these classes has its own characteristics and needs. The government’s inadequate attention (or even lack of it) to the problems faced by rural people is very likely to give rise to various forms of social conflicts and protests such as peasant-backed populism as a mass protest movement.
Keywords: populism, social group, class, peasantry, farmers, protection, assistance, the state, village.
The paper focuses on the phenomenon of electoral absenteeism, which became strikingly evident in the last parliamentary election in Ukraine when over half (50.75%) of eligible voters did not cast a ballot. In order to find the underlying reasons for people’s unwillingness to go to the polls, the author has analysed the data of the “Ukrainian Society” annual survey. Another important work on this issue is a study of non-voters in 24 European countries, which draws upon the data of European Social Survey for the year 2006. According to the study, factors that contribute most to people’s abstaining from voting are a respondent’s age, cohort and a specific period in the country’s political life (i. e. events before or during the election). To a certain extent, these factors affect voter turnout in Ukraine as well, which has been confirmed by subsequent analysis.
Keywords: absenteeism, non-voters, electoral behaviour, age, cohort.
The analysis of the “Ukrainian Society” data indicates that, in the context of geopolitical orientations, neither before nor after 2014 has the Donbas taken sharply negative attitudes towards the strategic goals of the Ukrainian state, now laid down in the Constitution. Although pro-European and pro-NATO orientations still remain the weakest in the Donbas, the dynamics of attitudes are similar to those in other regions. It is concluded that, to implement the future geopolitical goals, the Donbas, like most other regions, needs a more detailed and instrumental understanding of the development context associated with different geopolitical orientations (with economic, security-related, social and cultural aspects discussed and explained to a wider audience).
Keywords: the Donbas, geopolitical orientations, the EU, NATO.
What serves as a marker of information safety is public trust in the Internet and TV as two dominant broadcasting institutions, which are both competitors and complements. As for Ukraine, the level of trust in these institutions is rather low due to both endogenous and exogenous factors; furthermore, it varies from one cultural or regional community to another. Such a situation hinders consolidating effects as the risks related to the growing use of information technology (for both political and commercial purposes) are not decreasing.
Keywords: information safety, media scepticism, trust in the Internet, cybersecurity risks, information consumption practices in different sociocultural communities.
The paper seeks to determine how close Ukraine is to being a welfare state and how ready ordinary Ukrainians are to accept the core principles of this kind of state, such as democracy, the rule of law, civil society and a progressive tax system. The findings of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey lead to the conclusion that smoothing out social inequality by means of income redistribution among the different strata of society, which is possible through the appropriate budgetary policy and progressive taxation, has not become a guideline for the government’s social policy so far. Neither do the ordinary citizens regard these measures as necessary.
Keywords: welfare state, Rechtstaat (legal state), civil society, progressive taxation.
Sociologists and economists, as well as laypeople, consider “injustice” to be the closest association with “inequality”. The latter, in both an explicit and a latent form, is an inherent state of societal life for individuals to reckon with, given the categorical nature of its prescriptions in a host of everyday situations. The word “injustice” acts as an evaluation of gaps and differences in the availability of resources and opportunities between the nodes (or steps) of hierarchical structures that embody what is commonly called social order. Using the data of the “Ukrainian Society” survey for the years 2009–2019, the authors analyse the distinguishing characteristics of respondents’ attitudes towards social justice as a value, their views on the conditions under which justice can be achieved in Ukraine and Western countries, as well as on the factors conducive to its legitimation. The evaluations given by members of different social classes, as well as the full sample of respondents, are compared to each other.
Keywords: social inequality, social justice, perception of social justice, social class, Ukraine, Western countries.
The paper analyses how Ukraine’s population perceive the crucial reforms that have been unfolding in this country in recent years. The latest data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey suggest that respondents give widely varying, often contradictory evaluations to innovations being implemented against the backdrop of social instability in a society of unstable institutionality. A wide range of evaluations, from strongly negative to strongly positive, is recorded for the majority of innovations, and such a considerable variance is explained by socio-demographic factors.
Keywords: social stability / instability, institutional instability, reforms, innovations.
Today, social networking sites have become a central element in the design of a media space and the prevalent way of experiencing everyday life. They are no longer only the dominant embodiment of contemporary Internet culture but also fully represent modern, high-tech mode of the social. Drawing on the findings from the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey conducted in 2017 and 2019, the author examines the dynamics of Ukrainians’ preferences regarding the mainstream social media platforms and activities.
Keywords: social media, social networking sites, online practices, user-generated content, digital network culture.
The paper examines the attitude of Ukraine’s population to the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU). As a new national Orthodox church acting independently of Russia, OCU was canonically recognised in 2018. However, the recent data of the “Ukrainian Society” survey suggest that this event has not led to a considerable change in respondents’ opinions on this institution. On the one hand most Ukrainians are displaying a positive attitude towards OCU, but on the other, there are significant differences in respondents’ answers according to their ethnicity, region of residence and belonging to a particular denomination. Thus, the establishment of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine does not seem to be a consolidating factor for Ukrainian society so far. Another noteworthy point is that public support for OCU is to a great degree political in nature, and it correlates with the respondents’ basic value orientations.
Keywords: the Orthodox churches, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church under the Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP), the Ukrainian Orthodox Church under the Kyiv Patriarchate (UOC-KP), the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU), religious factor, Ukraine, values.
The paper highlights the general characteristics of employment in Ukraine, as well as specific features of standard and non-standard employment. In order to conduct further comparative analysis, the author distinguishes three groups of employed persons: a) those working full-time (on a permanent employee contract), i. e. stable, or “standard” employees; b) those who are engaged in non-standard employment; c) the self-employed. The calculations indicate that at least 44% of employed Ukrainians are presently working in various non-standard arrangements. The group of non-standard workers is highly heterogeneous. The data analysis has shown that self-employed individuals have somewhat higher levels of well-being and fare better financially than standard employees, whereas non-standard workers have the lowest well-being and are in the worst financial condition among the three groups. The author also calls attention to other phenomena that are widespread in Ukrainian society, such as over-employment, informal employment and low-wage earners.
Keywords: employment, non-standard employment, the self-employed, Ukrainian society.
The paper highlights a number of topical issues related to modernisation (with regard to Ukraine) and presents the findings of studying the processes that have been taking place in the economic, political and sociocultural domains of Ukrainian society as a transitional one. Socio-economic development is analysed as a factor underlying the society’s modernisation.
Keywords: society, modernisation, economy, politics, culture, socio-economic development.
The paper examines social dialogue in the context of modernisation-related transformations in today’s Ukrainian society. Modernisation-driven processes, in turn, are analysed in the light of three functioning domains: economic, political and sociocultural.
Keywords: society, state, social actors, dialogue, modernisation-driven processes.
The paper interprets human security and human rights with regard to the concept of quality of life. People’s thoughts on the quality of life are based on the evaluations of a set of conditions for physical, mental and social well-being; these evaluations, in turn, depend on the understanding of well-being by individuals, social groups or society as a whole. In the author’s view, today there is a considerable threat to human security in Ukraine; first of all, to the lives of ordinary people. The necessity of struggle for survival is a factor that significantly affects their social well-being. The analysis of unemployment as a threat to human security in Ukraine (with reference to the latest data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide social survey) suggests that this phenomenon largely contributes to mass migration, the outflow of the population and further degradation of depressed areas. It is concluded that the current approach to management of the economy, social protection, health care, culture and other key areas of Ukrainian society needs an immediate “reset”.
Keywords: human security, quality of life, economic inequality, social justice.
The paper analyses the attractiveness of the private sector employment to Ukrainians. According to the findings of the “Ukrainian Society” social survey, the number of people agreeing to work for a sole proprietor (or “private entrepreneur”, as it is literally translated from Ukrainian) grows as the economic conditions worsen. The other predictors of a person’s willingness to work in the private sector identified by using multiple linear regression are as follows: young age, a positive attitude towards liberal values, an internal locus of control, current employment status (employees are more ready to work in the private sector than employers or self-employed) and a respondent’s successful adaptation to the new economic environment.
Keywords: determinants of employment, the private sector of economy.
The paper analyses respondents’ views on who (themselves included) and how far should be responsible for a state of affairs in Ukraine. Different social institutions such as the President, the parliament, the Government, the judiciary, regional and local authorities, self-governing communities, business circles, etc. are brought into focus. The author has identified two generalised components of public perceptions about responsibility resting with these institutions: “responsibility of political centre” and that of “political periphery”. According to the respondents’ opinions on the degree of their own responsibility for the current situation in Ukraine overall and/or their locality, the sample has been divided into three clusters: “responsible” citizens, “not responsible” and “partially responsible”.
Keywords: responsibility, institutions, power, citizens, centre, periphery.
The paper analyses the prevalence of different civic engagement practices with regard to the way they have been performed by Ukrainians. The data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey show that the practices mainly involving individual efforts are the most popular with Ukraine’s population, whereas only a handful of respondents are engaged in activities that require organisational or collective efforts. Exploratory factor analysis has allowed the author to obtain five types of civic engagement practices preferred by Ukrainians.
Keywords: civil society, civic engagement practices.
The article discusses the phenomenon of “value synthesis” originally described by a German sociologist Helmut Klages. Today, in the age of global transformations, “value synthesis” is becoming a significant component of a person’s mindset. Drawing on the findings from the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey, the author shows how close Ukrainian citizens feel to each particular “value type” (such as active realists, hedonistic materialists, etc.) that represents “value synthesis”. Comparing the data for the year 2019 with those of 2013 makes it possible to track the dynamics of this process.
Keywords: values, value types of people, value synthesis.
The paper throws light on the age differences among Ukrainians in the way they participate in cultural and leisure activities. The findings of the “Ukrainian Society” social survey indicate that relaxation, spending time with family and/or friends, as well as media practices, are the most preferred leisure alternatives by respondents of all ages. Reading print newspapers is on the decline (especially among young adults), the same goes for fiction books. On the other hand, digital media are growing in popularity. Only a small percentage of respondents (older adults in particular) are involved in the cultural and leisure activities intended for the public (attending cinema, theatre, sporting events, etc.). Young people are more often than other age groups opt for active and/or creative leisure, as well as fitness and health practices. Yet, these activities are far less popular in relation to media practices and online communication — even when it comes to the young respondents. Young adults are somewhat more likely to say that they are satisfied with the quality of their leisure time and their holidays (vacations); meanwhile, 40–50% of all respondents report being dissatisfied with these things.
Keywords: cultural and leisure practices, monitoring cultural participation, youth, middle-aged adults, older adults, respondents’ evaluations regarding satisfaction of their leisure needs.
The paper focuses on the meaning of work to the life of both an individual and society as a whole. The author analyses whether and to what extent Ukrainians have the opportunity to put their knowledge, skills and abilities to good use — in other words, to find fulfilment in the work they do. The factors contributing to a person’s career fulfilment have been highlighted. It is noted that self-fulfilment at work is an important component of social well-being.
Keywords: work, putting one’s own skills and abilities to good use, self-fulfilment, social and economic development.
The paper focuses on sociocultural and resource-based approaches towards studying (from a sociological perspective) factors conducive to integration of internally displaced persons (IDPs) into a new environment. Particular attention is given to the problems related to IDPs’ integration with urban communities. The author points out that the three following factors are of great importance for IDPs’ successful integration in cities: easy access to urban infrastructure, sufficient institutional capacity of municipal authorities and positive social interactions between migrants and the host community.
Keywords: internally displaced persons, sociocultural approach, resource-based approach, integration, urban community.
The paper analyses the main trends in the relationship between the state and civil society in Ukraine after the two elections (presidential and parliamentary) that took place in 2019. It is noted that against the backdrop of rickety institutions, high concentration of power in a fairly paternalistic society brings additional risks to a fragile democracy — like that of Ukraine. In such a situation, civil society is even more supposed to perform a controlling function, thereby playing the role of a “safety device” necessary to preserve Ukraine’s democratic orientation, as well as continue a European and Euro-Atlantic course. So long as there is a relative balance between the authority of the state and civil society, the nature of relationship between them will depend on the choice of an appropriate strategy from a range of alternatives including dominance, cooperation and opposition. This choice will, in turn, be based on the sociopolitical situation, particularly on the way of resolving an armed conflict in the Donbas.
Keywords: civil society, state, concentration of power, rickety institutions, democracy, political communication.
The paper presents the estimates of subsistence level made by different socio-demographic and occupational groups of Ukraine’s population. The average values of the estimates given by each group have been calculated and analysed. All these figures are at variance with the officially established subsistence level, which is noticeably lower. Taking these data into account, the author argues that the current subsistence level in Ukraine needs an upward revision.
Keywords: standard of living, welfare state, subsistence level.
Modernisation as a purposeful transformation of the key areas of society is an unquestionable indicator of its development. Using the latest data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide social survey, the author analyses the following aspects: how respondents perceive the modernisation-driven processes taking place in different spheres of society, what they think of the initiators of reforms aimed at modernising Ukraine, what they consider to be the major impediments to modernisation and, finally, what tasks should be prioritised in order to facilitate successful development and transformation of Ukrainian society.
Keywords: modernisation of Ukrainian society, economic, political, social and cultural modernisation, power structures, social institutions, a nation’s / state’s competitiveness.
The latest data of the “Ukrainian Society” annual survey indicate a rise in the number of people feeling that they have successfully adapted to new realities. Since the very start of this survey in 1992, the percentage of respondents reporting that they have successfully adjusted themselves to changes has equalled the share of those who prefer the passive adaptation model. The author puts forward and tests several hypotheses to explain this fact. These hypotheses pertain to an overall improvement of the situation in Ukraine, the growth of the stratum of active social actors and a possible connection with the major political events of 2019.
Keywords: social adaptation, social activity, social change, emotional state.
Шульга Микола Олександрович
The paper analyses public attitudes towards Ukraine’s accession to the European Union. According to the data of the “Ukrainian Society” nationwide survey, the majority of respondents approve of this strategy. Among the steps towards joining the EU, which have been taken over the past five years, the introduction of visa-free travel to the Schengen countries is the most highly appreciated by Ukrainians. On the other hand, some of them express misgivings about the outcomes of Ukraine’s integration into the EU.
Keywords: public opinion, visa waiver, referendum, state sovereignty.
Шульга Микола Олександрович (Замість післямови)
The paper addresses the problem of studying societies that have to face up to multiple social and historical challenges. For this purpose, the author lays out a system of concepts and categories that make it possible to delve into the essence of processes occurring in this kind of society. He goes on to classify challenges into several groups and analyse each of them. The classification uses two criteria: the criterion of awareness (whether the challenge has been realised in society or not) and that of truth. According to the first criterion, there are realised and unrealised, as well as identified and unidentified challenges. The criterion of truth divides the challenges into true (actually existing), false (misunderstood or misinterpreted) and fake (based on inaccurate or deliberately distorted information). Other issues discussed in this article relate to the stages involved in developing a response to a particular challenge, with an emphasis on the role that elites should play in identifying challenges and formulating coherent responses to them. There is also an explanation of newly introduced concepts such as “an excess of challenges”, their “critical mass” and “the corridor of opportunities for handling a challenge”.
Keywords: challenge, identified and unidentified challenges, true and false challenges, an excess of challenges, a critical mass of challenges, elites.
The prevailing value orientations in Ukrainian society and the acceptance of new value patterns constitute the focus of this research paper. At the beginning, the author shows how the old value system has gradually been losing popularity (especially over the past few years) and draws attention to the factors that have contributed to a decrease in the number of its supporters. Then he describes how new values have been gaining ground in Ukrainian society, taking into consideration the broader context of changing value-and-meaning matrices. The next step is the examination of conditions under which the new values have been spreading. Finally, it is concluded that the new value pattern is now being accepted by social actors at a faster pace than before — mainly because this issue, previously considered irrelevant, has become relevant to a significant proportion of the population.
Keywords: values, symbolic enclaves, value-and-meaning matrix.
The paper examines how Ukrainian consumers perceive the value patterns portrayed in present-day feature films and TV series. The author analyses respondents’ value preferences that determine their choice of an art product from a particular country (Ukraine, Russia, the former Soviet Union, the USA, etc.). Another question posed in this article is whether art has the potential to shape a person’s value orientations and give a direction to his/her life.
Keywords: value preferences, value patterns, the impact of art, the potential of art, fictional reality, social reality.